In 2021, the University of Turku Research Institute for Learning Analytics, in collaboration with the Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology at the University of Turku, and Haskins Laboratories, initiated a project to research and advance digital methods for assessing reading skills.

Our objective is to explore and analyze a broad range of reading-related skills across various stages of development. The overarching aim is to comprehensively capture the linguistic landscape and its variations. To achieve this, our research spans a diverse array of languages. This initiative is known as the Multilingual Reading Assessment, abbreviated as MUREA.

Our research team comprises scholars from Finland, the United States, and Israel. To date, we have developed multiple digital assessment tasks designed to measure and analyze the reading skills of pupils. These tasks have already been employed in various large-scale assessments of pupils and are currently undergoing further refinement and development.

Multilingual Reading Assessment

Our project is dedicated to investigating and creating effective methods for evaluating the reading skills of individuals across diverse age groups and language backgrounds. To accomplish this objective, we are in the process of designing digital tasks that are practical for assessing large groups.

In summary, our goals are as follows:

  • Research the development of reading skills in individuals from various language backgrounds.
  • Develop assessment methods grounded in research that are easily applicable for teachers.
  • Assess and explore the entire spectrum of reading skills.

Throughout 2022, our team formulated a series of tasks specifically targeting different reading skills at both the word and subword levels in Finnish. Initial datasets were collected, and the group is currently engaged in the evaluation of these tests based on the gathered data.

In 2023, the researchers continued developing new tasks and refining the existing battery. In addition, multiple tasks were also constructed in Swedish. The group met face to face for the first time in August 2023 to discuss plans for the future.

In 2024 we will focus on publishing our first findings as well as developing and refining our existing tasks. Soon development will also begin on tasks assessing morphological awareness and reading comprehension.

Researchers of Multilingual Reading Assessment in Turku, 2023

Current Research & Assessment Tools

Assessment Tools

Currently, our primary emphasis is on developing tasks specifically designed to assess diverse component skills in children across varying age groups. Every task undergoes a thorough and research-driven development process. Upon achieving a functional version, we are committed to transparently sharing our findings, welcoming scrutiny and contributions from fellow researchers. Here is a brief overview of the tasks currently in progress:

Tasks for grades 1-2

  • d-Lexize A: an auditory test of vocabulary knowledge of developing readers (Finnish and Swedish versions under development)
  • Picture matching task: an auditory task to evaluate phonological awareness
  • Cross-modal matching task: an auditory task to evaluate coding of audio stimulus into written form

Tasks for grades 3-9

  • Phonological word reading (standardised in Finnish and Finnish-Swedish)
  • Sentence reading fluency (standardised in Finnish and Finnish-Swedish)
  • d-Lexize: a test of vocabulary knowledge of developing readers (Finnish and Swedish versions under development)
  • FlexPro: a test to assess a reader’s lexical quality
  • Reading Comprehension task (Finnish and Finnish-Swedish versions under development)


Currently, we are actively engaged in reporting our first findings. Throughout the course of 2024, we anticipate releasing comprehensive studies focusing on two distinct tasks: one aimed at evaluating vocabulary and another designed to assess lexical quality in Finnish. Additionally, our reports will delve into insights regarding rapid guessing behavior and psychometrics pertinent to measuring reading skills. Links to each forthcoming article will be provided on this page, so we encourage you to check back periodically for updates. As a starting point, we invite you to explore an insightful article on the inception of Lexize, the original L2 vocabulary task that served as the foundation for the development of d-Lexize: Lexize: A test to quickly assess vocabulary knowledge in Finnish.

Members & How to Contact Us

MUREA is a collaborative initiative involving the University of Turku, Haskins Laboratories (affiliated with Yale University and the University of Connecticut), and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The project is coordinated by the Turku Research Institute for Learning Analytics. The participating researchers are listed below.

We are actively seeking to expand our network by welcoming new partners and incorporating additional languages into our research. If you are intrigued and believe you could contribute to our project in any capacity, we encourage you to reach out to the coordinator of MUREA at tomi.rautaoja[at] We welcome your interest and look forward to potential collaborations.

Raymond Bertram

University (Senior) Lecturer,
Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku

Raymond is an eye-tracking specialist who has extensive experience in psycholinguistic studies. Alongside his involvement in the MUREA reading development project, he is engaged in a Finnish as a second language project and a project on stuttering in bilinguals. In the former, the focus lies on exploring the role of vocabulary and morphological skills in late Finnish language acquisition. In the latter, the goal is to identify criteria for diagnosing stuttering in bilinguals, who often show heightened disfluency, even without stuttering.

Petra Enges

Project Coordinator, Turku Research Institute for Learning Analytics, University of Turku

Petra is a seasoned educator specializing in Finnish language acquisition. With an extensive background in instructing Finnish as both a native tongue and a secondary language across diverse age groups, her expertise spans the spectrum of language pedagogy. She is dedicated to advancing the science of teaching and learning Finnish.

Santeri Holopainen

Statistician, Turku Research Institute for Learning Analytics, University of Turku

Santeri’s research focuses on psychometrics with an emphasis on studying diverse statistical methods for identifying sources of measurement error in psychological testing. His work seeks to advance understanding and develop methods to enhance the validity and reliability of psychological tests.

Jukka Hyönä

Professor Emeritus
Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku

During his academic career, Jukka has applied the eye-tracking method to study written language processing (word recognition, morphological processing, syntactic parsing, text comprehension), visual attention and visual cognition

Tuomo Häikiö

University (Senior) Lecturer,
Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku

Tuomo is an eye-tracking specialist whose main research interests concern the development of children’s reading skills. Tuomo has also been involved in eye-tracking research of infants’ processing of emotional stimuli.

Mikko-Jussi Laakso

Professor, Director of the Turku Research Institute for Learning Analytics, University of Turku

Mikko’s main research interests are learning analytics, computer-assisted learning, large-scale assessments & learning losses in math and reading, machine learning & AI in education. With 20 years of experience in research-based development of education at a national level, he has sought to advance the field through the implementation of educational technology solutions.

Tomi Rautaoja

MUREA Coordinator

Research Coordinator, Doctoral Researcher
Turku Research Institute for Learning Analytics, University of Turku

Tomi is committed to exploring how linguistic comprehension shapes reading skill development. Currently pursuing a Ph.D., he concentrates on advancing our understanding of reading skill development and assessment.

Jay Rueckl

Professor of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut; Senior Scientist, Haskins Laboratories; Co-director of Learning Disabilities Research Innovation Hub.

Jay’s research uses behavioral methods, neuroimaging, and computational modeling to understand the machinery of reading and reading acquisition. Recently, he has investigated reading acquisition and reading disability across languages, the differences between at-risk children who do or do not respond to intervention, and the acquisition of knowledge of the statistical regularities of the writing system in both typically developing and dyslexic children. 

Pekka Räsänen

Professor of Practice, Vice Director
Turku Research Institute for Learning Analytics, University of Turku

Pekka is a clinical neuropsychologist with 30 years of experience in developmental disorders. Currently, his research focuses on learning and learning difficulties in basic skills in mathematics and reading and their relation to cognitive skills and emotional well-being, as well as on digital interventions for dyscalculia and dyslexia.

Noam Siegelman

Assistant Professor
Department of Psychology & Department of Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Noam studies reading, learning, and their intersection, with the goal of understanding variability in reading skills given one’s ability to learn the structure of their writing system. He also has a soft spot for psychometrics, methodology, and statistical modeling, and a likeness to all datasets, big and small.